Pessach oder Passah ist das jüdische Überschreitungs-Fest. Es wird heute zur Erinnerung an den Auszug des jüdischen Volkes aus Ägypten gefeiert: „In jedem. Pessach erinnert Juden in jedem Jahr sieben Tage lang an die Ereignisse kurz vor der Flucht ihrer Vorfahren aus Ägypten. Das Fest heißt auch Übersprungsfest. Am Abend beginnt für Juden das siebentägige Pessach-Fest. Viele Gläubige stellt das Kontaktverbot vor enorme Herausforderungen - vor.
Was warum auf dem Sederteller zu Pessach liegtPessach, auch Passa, Passah oder Pascha genannt (hebräisch פֶּסַח pésach, Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel pésach; aramäisch פַּסְחָא pas'cha;. Pessach erinnert Juden in jedem Jahr sieben Tage lang an die Ereignisse kurz vor der Flucht ihrer Vorfahren aus Ägypten. Das Fest heißt auch Übersprungsfest. Will Gott uns einengen und bevormunden? An Pessach bekennt das Judentum Gott feierlich als denjenigen, der aus Unterdrückung rettet und.
Passach Navigationsmenü VideoMOREH NAPHTALI IN Passach 3/31/2010
Nach der Zerstörung des zweiten Tempels endete mit den Opfern auch das Schlachten von Pessachtieren. Seither wird das Pessach als reines Hausfest gefeiert.
Der Traktat Psachim in der Mischna sammelte und erweiterte alle Pessachvorschriften, die aus der Schrift begründet waren und vor 70 geübt wurden Kapitel I—IX.
Nicht sie, sondern gläubige Männer aus dem Volk vollzogen die Schlachtung im Tempelvorhof der Priester V,5.
Das letzte Kapitel befasst sich mit dem Seder, um diese häusliche Feier als Bestandteil biblischer Tora in Kontinuität zum bisherigen Pessachritus zu legitimieren.
Dies sei auch für die bettlägerigen Armen unerlässlich X,1. Die Feier solle mit dem Segensspruch des Hausvaters über den ersten Becher Wein beginnen, der dann herumgeht und von allen geleert wird X,2.
Dann wird die Vorspeise aus Kräutern und Fruchtmus, dann das Hauptmahl mit dem gebratenen Lamm X,3 aufgetragen, dazu ein zweiter Weinbecher X,4.
Jeder Festteilnehmer solle sich ansehen wie einen damaligen befreiten Israeliten und Gott deswegen mit Psalmgesang verherrlichen X,5.
Diesem ersten gemeinsamen Hallel folgt ein Dankgebet, der zweite Becher wird getrunken und das Hauptmahl eingenommen. Danach folgt der dritte, nach dem zweiten Hallel der vierte Weinbecher.
Dieser bis heute gültige Ablauf des Seder wurde bis zum Jahrhundert immer mehr verfeinert und in seinen Details schriftlich festgelegt.
Nisan als dem Sederabend. Das ist der so genannte erev pessach oder Rüsttag , an dem das Fest vorbereitet wird.
Die folgende Tabelle listet die Termine von Pessach im gregorianischen Kalender für die nächsten Jahre auf.
Der Tageswechsel im jüdischen Kalender bei Sonnenuntergang unterscheidet sich vom Tageswechsel im christlichen Kalender um Mitternacht.
Daher wird bei der Umrechnung der Beginn des Pessachfestes mit dem Datum des auf den Sederabend folgenden Tages im gregorianischen Kalender  angegeben.
Jeder Festtag beginnt am Vorabend, denn im jüdischen Kalender dauert der Tag vom Vorabend bis zum Abend des Tages — nicht von 0 bis 24 Uhr.
Am Pessachfest besteht Chol HaMoed aus dem zweiten bis sechsten Feiertag dritter bis sechster in der Diaspora. Das Pessachfest dauert sieben Tage, in der Diaspora bei orthodoxen Juden acht Tage.
Dies wurde in der rabbinischen Tradition auf alle Speisen, die in irgendeiner Weise mit Gesäuertem in Berührung kamen, ausgedehnt. Sie dürfen an Pessach weder zur Zubereitung oder Darreichung von Speisen, ja nicht einmal zur Viehfütterung genutzt werden.
Als Säuerndes gilt jede der fünf Getreidearten Weizen , Roggen , Gerste , Hafer , Dinkel Spelt , die für mindestens 18 Minuten mit Wasser in Kontakt kam, sowie jede Speise und jedes Getränk, das aus einer dieser Getreidesorten hergestellt ist oder sie enthält.
Das Haus wird bis auf den letzten Krümel gereinigt. Chametz, welches vergessen und später entdeckt wurde, darf nicht mehr genutzt werden und wird deshalb weggeworfen.
Gefundenes geschenktes oder ähnliches Chametz darf ebenfalls verkauft werden, und am Ende des Pessachs wieder zurückgekauft werden Der materielle Besitz muss nicht zwingend wechseln.
In vielen Haushalten gibt es Geschirr und Besteck nur für Pessach. Alles Küchenzubehör aus anderen Materialien, wie Holz, Porzellan, Steingut, Plastik usw.
Zum Abschluss dieser Hausreinigung wird rituell im Licht einer Kerze jeder Winkel der Wohnung nach verbliebenem Chametz durchsucht. Words named after people are called "eponyms.
Take this quiz to see what you know about the people behind the words. Which of these tobacco products is a variation on the last name of the guy who introduced it?
Words nearby Pesach pervicacious , pervious , perv on , Pervouralsk , pes , Pesach , pesade , pes anserinus , Pesaro , Pescadores , Pescara.
Haftarah: Joshua - Torah Portion: Leviticus ; Numbers Haftarah: II Kings - ; - Torah Portion: Exodus Torah Portion: Numbers The sacrifice could not be offered with anything leavened Exodus , and had to be roasted, without its head, feet, or inner organs being removed Exodus and eaten together with unleavened bread matzo and bitter herbs maror.
One had to be careful not to break any bones from the offering Exodus , and none of the meat could be left over by morning Exodus Exodus Because of the Passover sacrifice's status as a sacred offering, the only people allowed to eat it were those who had the obligation to bring the offering.
Among those who could not offer or eat the Passover lamb were an apostate Exodus , a servant Exodus , an uncircumcised man Exodus , a person in a state of ritual impurity , except when a majority of Jews are in such a state Pesahim 66b , and a non-Jew.
The offering had to be made before a quorum of 30 Pesahim 64b. In the Temple, the Levites sang Hallel while the priests performed the sacrificial service.
Men and women were equally obligated regarding the offering Pesahim 91b. Today, in the absence of the Temple, when no sacrifices are offered or eaten, the mitzvah of the Korban Pesach is memorialized in the Seder Korban Pesach , a set of scriptural and Rabbinic passages dealing with the Passover sacrifice, customarily recited after the Mincha afternoon prayer service on the 14th of Nisan,  and in the form of the zeroa , a symbolic food placed on the Passover Seder Plate but not eaten , which is usually a roasted shankbone or a chicken wing or neck.
The eating of the afikoman substitutes for the eating of the Korban Pesach at the end of the Seder meal Mishnah Pesachim a. Many Sephardi Jews have the custom of eating lamb or goat meat during the Seder in memory of the Korban Pesach.
The consumption, keeping, and owning of chametz is forbidden during Passover. Yeast and fermentation are not themselves forbidden as seen for example by wine, which is required, rather than merely permitted.
According to Halakha, the ownership of such chametz is also proscribed. Chametz does not include baking soda , baking powder or like products.
Although these are defined in English as leavening agents, they leaven by chemical reaction, not by biological fermentation. Thus, bagels, waffles and pancakes made with baking soda and matzo meal are considered permissible, while bagels made with sourdough and pancakes and waffles made with yeast are prohibited.
Observant Jews spend the weeks before Passover in a flurry of thorough housecleaning, to remove every morsel of chametz from every part of the home.
Jewish law requires the elimination of olive -sized or larger quantities of leavening from one's possession, but most housekeeping goes beyond this.
Even the seams of kitchen counters are thoroughly cleaned to remove traces of flour and yeast, however small. Any containers or implements that have touched chametz are stored and not used during Passover.
Some hotels , resorts , and even cruise ships across America , Europe , and Israel also undergo a thorough housecleaning to make their premises "kosher for Pesach" to cater to observant Jews.
Some scholars suggest that the command to abstain from leavened food or yeast suggests that sacrifices offered to God involve the offering of objects in "their least altered state", that would be nearest to the way in which they were initially made by God.
There are also variations with restrictions on eating matzah before Passover so that there will be an increased appetite for it during Passover itself.
Primarily among Chabad Chassidim, there is a custom of not eating matzoh flat unleavened bread in the 30 days before Passover begins.
Leaven or chametz may be sold rather than discarded, especially in the case of relatively valuable forms such as liquor distilled from wheat, with the products being repurchased afterward.
In some cases, they may never leave the house, instead being formally sold while remaining in the original owner's possession in a locked cabinet until they can be repurchased after the holiday.
Modern observance may also include sealing cabinets and drawers which contain "Chametz" shut by using adhesive tape, which serves a similar purpose to a lock but also shows evidence of tampering.
Although the practice of selling "Chametz" dates back many years, some Reform rabbinical authorities have come to regard it with disdain — since the supposed "new owner" never takes actual possession of the goods.
The sale of chametz may also be conducted communally via a rabbi , who becomes the "agent" for all the community's Jews through a halakhic procedure called a kinyan acquisition.
Each householder must put aside all the chametz he is selling into a box or cupboard, and the rabbi enters into a contract to sell all the chametz to a non-Jew who is not obligated to celebrate the commandments in exchange for a small down payment e.
This sale is considered completely binding according to Halakha, and at any time during the holiday, the buyer may come to take or partake of his property.
The rabbi then re-purchases the goods for less than they were sold at the end of the holiday. On the night of the fourteenth of Nisan , the night before the Passover Seder after nightfall on the evening before Passover eve , Jews do a formal search in their homes known as bedikat chametz for any possible remaining leaven chametz.
The Talmudic sages instructed that a search for chametz be made in every home, place of work, or any place where chametz may have been brought during the year.
The Talmud in Pesahim p. Before the search is begun there is a special blessing. If several people or family members assist in the search then only one person, usually the head of that family recites the blessing having in mind to include everyone present: .
The search is then usually conducted by the head of the household joined by his family including children under the supervision of their parents.
It is customary to turn off the lights and conduct the search by candlelight , using a feather and a wooden spoon: candlelight effectively illuminates corners without casting shadows; the feather can dust crumbs out of their hiding places; and the wooden spoon which collects the crumbs can be burned the next day with the chametz.
However, most contemporary Jewish-Orthodox authorities permit using a flashlight, while some strongly encourage it due to the danger coupled with using a candle.
Because the house is assumed to have been thoroughly cleaned by the night before Passover, there is some concern that making a blessing over the search for chametz will be in vain bracha l'vatala if nothing is found.
Thus, 10 morsels of bread or cereal smaller than the size of an olive are traditionally hidden throughout the house in order to ensure that some chametz will be found.
Upon conclusion of the search, with all the small pieces safely wrapped up and put in one bag or place, to be burned the next morning, the following is said:.
Original declaration as recited in Aramaic : . Note that if the 14th of Nisan is Shabbat , many of the below will be celebrated on the 13th instead due to restrictions in place during Shabbat.
On the day preceding the first Passover seder or on Thursday morning preceding the seder, when the first seder falls on Motza'ei Shabbat , firstborn sons are commanded to celebrate the Fast of the Firstborn which commemorates the salvation of the Hebrew firstborns.
According to Exodus , God struck down all Egyptian firstborns while the Israelites were not affected. However, it is customary for synagogues to conduct a siyum ceremony marking the completion of a section of Torah learning right after morning prayers , and the celebratory meal that follows cancels the firstborn's obligation to fast.
On the morning of the 14th of Nisan , any leavened products that remain in the householder's possession, along with the 10 morsels of bread from the previous night's search, are burned s'rayfat chametz.
The head of the household repeats the declaration of biyur chametz , declaring any chametz that may not have been found to be null and void "as the dust of the earth":.
Should more chametz actually be found in the house during the Passover holiday, it must be burnt as soon as possible. Unlike chametz , which can be eaten any day of the year except during Passover, kosher for Passover foods can be eaten year-round.
They need not be burnt or otherwise discarded after the holiday ends. The historic "Paschal lamb" Passover sacrifice Korban Pesach has not been brought following the Romans' destruction of the Second Jewish temple approximately two thousand years ago, and it is therefore still not part of the modern Jewish holiday.
In the times when the Jewish Temples stood, the lamb was slaughtered and cooked on the evening of Passover and was completely consumed before the morning as described in Exodus — Due to the Torah injunction not to eat chametz leaven during Passover Exodus , observant families typically own complete sets of serving dishes, glassware and silverware and in some cases, even separate dishwashers and sinks which have never come into contact with chametz , for use only during Passover.
Under certain circumstances, some chametz utensils can be immersed in boiling water hagalat keilim to purge them of any traces of chametz that may have accumulated during the year.
Many Sephardic families thoroughly wash their year-round glassware and then use it for Passover, as the Sephardic position is that glass does not absorb enough traces of food to present a problem.
Similarly, ovens may be used for Passover either by setting the self-cleaning function to the highest degree for a certain period of time, or by applying a blow torch to the interior until the oven glows red hot a process called libun gamur.
A symbol of the Passover holiday is matzo , an unleavened flatbread made solely from flour and water which is continually worked from mixing through baking, so that it is not allowed to rise.
Matzo may be made by machine or by hand. The Torah contains an instruction to eat matzo, specifically, on the first night of Passover and to eat only unleavened bread in practice, matzo during the entire week of Passover.
There are several explanations for this. The Torah says that it is because the Hebrews left Egypt with such haste that there was no time to allow baked bread to rise; thus flat, unleavened bread, matzo, is a reminder of the rapid departure of the Exodus.
Matzo has also been called Lechem Oni Hebrew: "bread of poverty". There is an attendant explanation that matzo serves as a symbol to remind Jews what it is like to be a poor slave and to promote humility, appreciate freedom, and avoid the inflated ego symbolized by more luxurious leavened bread.
Shmura matzo "watched" or "guarded" matzo , is the bread of preference for the Passover Seder in Orthodox Jewish communities.
Shmura matzo is made from wheat that is guarded from contamination by leaven chametz from the time of summer harvest  to its baking into matzos five to ten months later.
In the weeks before Passover, matzos are prepared for holiday consumption. In many Orthodox Jewish communities, men traditionally gather in groups " chaburas " to bake handmade matzo for use at the Seder, the dough being rolled by hand, resulting in a large and round matzo.
Chaburas also work together in machine-made matzo factories, which produce the typically square-shaped matzo sold in stores. The baking of matzo is labor-intensive,  as less than 18 minutes is permitted between the mixing of flour and water to the conclusion of baking and removal from the oven.
Consequently, only a small number of matzos can be baked at one time, and the chabura members are enjoined to work the dough constantly so that it is not allowed to ferment and rise.
A special cutting tool is run over the dough just before baking to prick any bubbles which might make the matza puff up;  this creates the familiar dotted holes in the matzo.
After the matzos come out of the oven, the entire work area is scrubbed down and swept to make sure that no pieces of old, potentially leavened dough remain, as any stray pieces are now chametz , and can contaminate the next batch of matzo.
Some machine-made matzos are completed within 5 minutes of being kneaded. The table is set with the finest china and silverware to reflect the importance of the meal.
During this meal, the story of the Exodus from Egypt is retold using a special text called the Haggadah. Four cups of wine are consumed at various stages in the narrative.
The Haggadah divides the night's procedure into 15 parts:. The seder is replete with questions, answers, and unusual practices e.
The children are also rewarded with nuts and candies when they ask questions and participate in the discussion of the Exodus and its aftermath.
Likewise, they are encouraged to search for the afikoman , the piece of matzo which is the last thing eaten at the seder.
Audience participation and interaction is the rule, and many families' seders last long into the night with animated discussions and much singing.
The seder concludes with additional songs of praise and faith printed in the Haggadah, including Chad Gadya "One Little Kid" or "One Little Goat".
Maror bitter herbs symbolizes the bitterness of slavery in Egypt. There is a Rabbinic requirement that four cups of wine are to be drunk during the seder meal.
This applies to both men and women. The Mishnah says Pes. Each cup is connected to a different part of the seder: the first cup is for Kiddush, the second cup is connected with the recounting of the Exodus , the drinking of the third cup concludes Birkat Hamazon and the fourth cup is associated with Hallel.
Children have a very important role in the Passover seder. Traditionally the youngest child is prompted to ask questions about the Passover seder, beginning with the words, Mah Nishtana HaLeila HaZeh Why is this night different from all other nights?
The questions encourage the gathering to discuss the significance of the symbols in the meal. The questions asked by the child are:.
Often the leader of the seder and the other adults at the meal will use prompted responses from the Haggadah, which states, "The more one talks about the Exodus from Egypt , the more praiseworthy he is.
Many households add their own commentary and interpretation and often the story of the Jews is related to the theme of liberation and its implications worldwide.
The afikoman — an integral part of the Seder itself — is used to engage the interest and excitement of the children at the table. During the fourth part of the Seder, called Yachatz , the leader breaks the middle piece of matzo into two.1. Also called Pesach. a Jewish festival, beginning on the 14th of Nisan and celebrated for either seven or eight days, that commemorates the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. 2. (l.c.) paschal lamb (def. 1). [–30; translation of Hebrew pesaḥ]. Pesach, known in English as Passover, is one of the most commonly observed Jewish holidays, even by otherwise non-observant Jews. According to the National Jewish Population Survey (NJPS), 67% of Jews routinely hold or attend a Pesach seder, while only 46% belong to a synagogue. Passover, Hebrew Pesaḥ, or Pesach, in Judaism, holiday commemorating the Hebrews’ liberation from slavery in Egypt and the “passing over” of the forces of destruction, or the sparing of the firstborn of the Israelites, when the Lord “smote the land of Egypt” on the eve of the Exodus. Pesachim (Hebrew: פְּסָחִים , lit. "Paschal lambs" or "Passovers"), also spelled Pesahim, is the third tractate of Seder Moed ("Order of Festivals") of the Mishnah and of the Talmud. The tractate discusses the topics related to the Jewish holiday of Passover, and the Passover sacrifice, both called "Pesach" in Hebrew. Passover (Pesach) commemorates the emancipation of the Israelites from slavery in ancient Egypt. Pesach is observed by avoiding leaven, and highlighted by the Seder meals that include four cups of wine, eating matzah and bitter herbs, and retelling the story of the Exodus.